It’s from the Government Accountability Office in the U.S. (short highlights, podcast, and 61-page PDF here).
Among the issues are that fewer people seem to be moving from the military to take pilot jobs. Also, the wages and benefits of airline jobs aren’t appealing enough to take some jobs at regional airline carriers in the U.S., causing pilots to find other work or take overseas jobs.
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The report offers some suggestions, like “alternative pathways” to becoming a pilot, including counting more use of flight simulations in training.